Psoriasis is a long -term and treatable, non -contagious disease. It mainly affects the skin, nails and joints. Psoriasis can occur in a person at any age, even in children.
There are several theories about the causes of psoriasis:
- Theory of neurogenic disorders;
- Theory of problems in the endocrine system;
- Viral disorder theory or metabolic disorder theory.
But none of these theories have been scientifically proven in practice. To date, scientists have concluded that the onset of the disease is influenced by a person’s heredity or genetic predisposition to pathological changes in skin cells.
These cells form in the basal layer and, reaching the outer stratum corneum, form scales. Genetic factors prove the presence of the disease in relatives. In other words: if your relatives have psoriasis, then it may show up in you or your children.
Factors that affect the appearance of psoriasis
The following factors affect the appearance of psoriasis:
- Nerve damage;
- Mental and physical shock, excessive body load;
- Diseases of the endocrine system;
- Biochemical and enzymatic disorders;
- Body hypothermia;
- Decreased immunity.
It is difficult to identify and confirm the cause of this disease. They often say that the disease appears for no apparent reason.
What is the type of psoriasis: how does it manifest itself?
With this disease, papules and plaques appear on the skin. Plaques are limited, dense spots on pink or reddish skin with small light scales. Plaques have different shapes, but they are more often round or oval. They can be located anywhere in the human body, but are more often observed on large joints, on the sacrum and lower back, under the hair on the head.
Psoriatic papules are characterized by rapid growth with the formation of plaques a few centimeters, which then merge into large skin lesions.
How is psoriasis diagnosed?
The following indicators are important for diagnosis:
- If you try to scrape the papule, the scales are easily sprinkled, "stearin spots" are formed.
- A reddish glossy surface appears on the skin - a spot terminal film;
- If you continue to scrape the stain, then bleeding spots appear on its surface - "blood dew".
Stages of psoriasis
For rashes attached to the disease, the following stages of development are characteristic:
- Progressive stage (appearance of small papules, which grow over time and merge into larger ones);
- Stationary stage (plaque grows and does not change for a certain period of time);
- Regressive stage (rash becomes pale, becomes thinner and disappears from the surface of the skin).
Depending on the condition of the body, the disease can last for a very long time.
For the first stage of the rash, the Kebner effect is characteristic: new psoriatic lesions appear at the site of the damaged skin after about a week.
During the period of remission on the skin in the area of the elbow or knee joint, isolated plaques, called "duties" may remain.
Types of psoriasis
There are several types of diseases:
- Exudative form: thus, swelling and brightness of the papule with a yellowish crust on its surface is expressed;
- Follicle shape: small papules localized in the area of the follicular orifice;
- Forms of palmar-plantar psoriasis: thus, the skin of the soles and palms of the hands is covered with cracks and scales, psoriatic plaques appear on them;
- Seborrheic psoriasis: localized mainly on the scalp;
- Psoriatic erythroderma. In this form, the disease is very severe, the entire surface of the skin is affected by psoriasis, an increase in peripheral lymph nodes, fever, itching, sleep disturbances appear, changes in blood and urine are observed;
- Psoriasis arthropathy: affects and changes the shape of the joints, restricting movement in them. It is characterized by severe pain and swelling in the affected joint area. This is a very painful form of psoriasis that often results in disability.
In all forms of psoriasis, changes in the nails are observed: they become cloudy, thickened and small spots appear in them, as if they were pricked with a needle.
The disease lasts for many years with periods of deterioration and improvement of health, it is characterized by seasonality: deterioration in the cold and remission in the summer.
Psoriasis should be treated under the supervision of a doctor in the dermatology department. Treatment is prescribed by optimally combining therapeutic drugs with ointments and physiotherapy, as well as limiting animal fats and carbohydrates in foods, alcohol and spicy foods.
Patients should be under the supervision of a dispensary by a physician and they require annual spa treatments. With psoriasis, it is recommended to visit radon springs and hydrogen sulfide baths, swim in the sea and sunbathe.