Psoriasis is a chronic non-communicable disease and until recently it was considered a skin disease. The peculiarity of the inflammatory process in certain areas of the skin in patients with psoriasis is that the life cycle of normal skin cells is about 30-40 days, when, as in psoriasis, it is 4-5 days, that is, after 4 days, the skin cells gradually-tolerates death, forms plaque, dryness, peeling of the skin and so on.
The problem of treating this complex disease and difficult to treat nowadays is urgent not only for dermatologists, many other specialists are often involved in determining the cause of psoriasis in patients, and also directly involved in the complex treatment of this disease. Today, medicine considers psoriasis in terms of systemic failure in the body, and not just as an inflammatory process of the skin.
Although its name has changed, it is now a psoriatic disease. Why is psoriasis a systemic pathology? Because in patients, several different disorders in the work of the body as a whole are found at once - on the nerves, endocrine, immune. In the medical field, there are several types of psoriasis, there are also a large number of reasons for the onset of the disease, most of which are theoretical, as there is no convincing evidence of these alleged causes, we will consider them in more detail.
Some facts:Psoriasis is not contagious because it is believed to be caused by damage to the function of the human immune system, namely T-lymphocytes that are too active on the skin. Psoriasis is classified as a hereditary disease, with psoriasis in 1 parent, the risk of developing psoriasis in a child is 25%, if both parents have 65%. In addition to hereditary factors, the mechanisms that trigger psoriasis or relapse are the intake of antibiotics, NSAIDs, B vitamins, as well as stress, alcohol, and skin injuries.
The theory of viral causes of psoriasis
A number of studies conducted among patients with psoriasis have found various changes in the peripheral lymph nodes, which may indicate the viral nature of the development of the disease. It is suspected that it is a genetically inherited retrovirus that may be one of the causes of psoriasis, but to prove the origin of psoriasis, it is necessary to identify the virus, isolate it and choose a habitat, and so far no one can do this.
The fact is that retroviruses have the ability to modify the host's genetic code, they, with the help of reverse transcriptase enzymes, have the ability to synthesize DNA, and "fake programs" are formed in cells that alter the human genome. However, it has been proven that even with the transfer of blood from psoriasis patients to healthy people, infection or transmission of the disease has never been observed. Therefore, the version on the cause of the psoriasis virus has not been proven.
Causes of psoriasis immunity
This is one of the generally accepted theories of the cause of psoriasis, as cellular immune disorders are considered the main triggers of this disease. It has long been observed that in people with a genetic predisposition to psoriatic disease, if there is a focus of chronic infections - tonsillitis, sinusitis, which indicates a decrease in immunity - is a factor that provokes the occurrence of psoriasis.
When the primary focus of psoriasis occurs, medications also indicate that damage to the epidermis is caused by autoimmune invasion. In many studies of patients with psoriasis, abnormalities in the immune complex, antibodies, immunoglobulins, which cause Munro microabses, have been identified.
In the process of activating psoriasis inflammation, skin hypersensitivity increases sharply, therefore, in places of physical or chemical irritation, a characteristic rash of psoriasis appears. When examining skin scales, antigenic components were found, and autoantibodies to them in the blood, which were not found in healthy people either in skin or blood.
This fact gives reason to assert that the autoimmune process plays an important role in the cause of psoriasis. But any process, even an immune reaction, is performed in the body as in an inseparable system, therefore, a combination of other factors, such as endocrine influences, hereditary factors, metabolic disorders, should be considered.
The theory of the development of infectious psoriasis
One hundred years ago, many researchers diligently searched for infectious psoriatic disease agents, and streptococci, spirochetes, and epidermophytos were found guilty of their occurrence. However, in the absence of these pathogenic microorganisms, fungi, after research, have not been found to be the cause of psoriasis.
However, infectious diseases, tonsillitis, influenza ARVI affect the increase or trigger of the onset of psoriasis, especially in winter, when the immune system is weakened and patients with psoriasis are often hospitalized.
Some authors believe that the development of psoriasis against the background of acute and chronic infections is explained by the entry of impulses from the focus of infection into the endocrine system and vegetative parts, leading to the restructuring of reactivity of the body. Often, in 90% of cases, chronic tonsillitis accompanies psoriasis, which confirms the influence of infectious processes and decreased immunity to the development of psoriasis.
Also, according to many experts, there are causes of contagious allergies in psoriasis. Proponents believe psoriasis is an allergic tissue reaction to viruses, streptococcus and its waste products. However, viral or infection theories cannot be confirmed.
This reason is based on the manifestations of family psoriasis among close and distant relatives. However, psoriasis should not be considered a strict hereditary disease, as well as diabetes, cancer, ischemic heart disease, as it is not the psoriasis itself that is inherited, but only the genetic predisposition to it. Yes, 60% of patients with psoriasis have an ancestor or close relative who suffers from this disease, and if one parent is ill, then, according to theoretical probability, the child's risk of developing psoriasis increases by 25%, and if both parents are ill, up to 75%.
However, not always with psoriasis, the cause is simply a genetic factor. The disease has recently become very common in clinical practice, and does not always depend on the associated tendencies. In psoriasis, the cause is so multifactorial that it is impossible to clearly indicate a particular cause. Because pathogenic factors are also violations of protein or carbohydrate metabolism, and lipid changes, enzyme metabolism, in combination with the focus of streptococcal infection or viral properties.
Metabolic disorders as a factor in the development of psoriasis
If we consider metabolic disorders in psoriasis, then in many patients there is a slight decrease in body temperature, and this is one of the symptoms of slow metabolism, an increase in cholesterol content is also observed, which indicates changes in lipid metabolism. Given the high cholesterol levels, many researchers consider psoriasis to be a cholesterol diathesis, and consider its increase as an early manifestation of dermatosis, because violations of lipid metabolism stimulate the formation of skin keratinization.
Also, in psoriasis, vitamin metabolism is disrupted, especially vitamins C, A, B12, B6, while the content of vitamin C in the skin increases. Also, shifts in iron, copper, zinc content were observed, which significantly reduced the adaptive properties of the human body. Nearly 25% of patients with psoriasis also suffer from diabetes mellitus, however, some researchers consider this fact not as a cause of psoriasis, but, rather, as a manifestation of psoriatic disease.
With the development of this disease, basal metabolism in patients with psoriasis most often increases, and in patients with decreased metabolism, symptoms of hypothyroidism, endocrine glands, and gonads are often shown, in 60% of patients with psoriasis, general carbohydrate metabolism is disrupted. Low-calorie diet, or moderate fasting, reduces the body's self-toxicity, therefore, diet in the treatment of psoriasis improves the patient's condition.
Causes factors for psoriasis
At the current level of medical research to determine the cause of psoriasis, it can be said that this is a recurrent systemic disease that appears in people who are genetically predisposed, with disorders similar to various metabolism of the central nervous system.
Good for the onset of psoriasis and for the worsening of existing chronic psoriasis, the most common triggers are stress, psychological trauma, prolonged fatigue and nervous tension.
Stress triggers immunological and biochemical reactions that contribute to the development of psoriasis. Sometimes, negative emotions work, on the contrary, to resolve the clinical symptoms of psoriasis. According to a survey of psoriasis patients, this provoking factor caused the onset of the disease in 49% of patients and 41% gave psoriasis recurrence.
Infectious diseases, vaccinations, chronic infection focus
Tonsillitis, sinusitis, STIs, otitis media, etc. , especially highly contagious streptococci are often detected. For disease progression, this factor is relevant in 21% of patients, and for the onset of psoriasis development, infection is the trigger mechanism in 15% of patients.
Hormonal changes in women
During pregnancy, lactation, during menopause or during adolescence - in 6% of patients surveyed, this is also a factor that provokes the development of psoriasis.
Injuries, bites, burns
Any trauma to the skin - in 12-14% of patients, the appearance of psoriasis is due to physical trauma.
Is the cause of psoriasis or its deterioration in 5% of patients.
Like antibiotics, NSAIDs. Vitamin therapy - especially vitamins C, B, beta-blockers, cytostatics, vaccinations, the use of herbal medicines in treatment - this provokes psoriasis in 6% of patients.
Food poisoning, certain food abuse
Chocolate, citrus fruits and other products - according to a patient survey, this is the cause of psoriasis in 4% of patients.
Also, the provoking factor causing generalization of the inflammatory process shortens the remission period and increases the risk of complications, this was shown by 3% of respondents.
High humidity, prolonged exposure to strong ultraviolet radiation, sudden changes in temperature and humidity - cause irritation in 2% of patients.
The first symptoms of early psoriasis can occur regardless of age, equally often appearing in infants and in people aged 20-40, although in old age, psoriasis may begin to develop. Naturally, the earlier it appears, the worse the consequences it inflicts on the patient. If psoriasis starts in a person after the age of 30, it is usually accompanied by gastritis, liver disease, overweight, various neurosis, diabetes, arthritis and other diseases.